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Loan 101 For First-Time Homebuyers: What Is a Mortgage and How Does It Work? Thumbnail

Loan 101 For First-Time Homebuyers: What Is a Mortgage and How Does It Work?

You’ve always heard that 20 percent is the gold standard for a down payment - making home buying feel more like a dream than a reality for many. Yes, 20 percent is still a good number to aim for. But having less than that doesn’t mean you can’t afford to buy a house. In today’s market, you can often put down significantly less to get out of your rented space and into a new home.

Below we’re going over the ins and outs of obtaining a mortgage - and what you should expect your monthly mortgage payments to look like.

What Is a Mortgage?

A mortgage is a secured loan used to buy a house or piece of property. As a reminder, a secured loan is a type of loan that requires collateral from the borrower - such as a house, car or other form of property.  

The most common length for a fixed mortgage is 30 years, with about 90 percent of homebuyers utilizing this option. 15-year loans are the second most popular - six percent of homebuyers choose this loan length.1    

How Does a Mortgage Work?

If you choose to use a mortgage to purchase your home, the lender (your bank, credit union or other financial institution) will actually own the home outright. You will make regular payments (typically monthly) to the lender for a predetermined length of time. As mentioned before, the most common loan lengths are 30-year and 15-year fixed loans. These payments will include the principal amount and interest. It may also include other expenses like property taxes,  and homeowner’s insurance (PITI). If your down payment is less than 20% your payment may also include private mortgage insurance. 

There are several factors that determine your interest rate, including your credit score, home location, purchase price and loan amount, loan term and interest rate type. Interest rates come in two different types - fixed or adjustable. Fixed interest rates remain constant over the life of the loan. Adjustable interest rates are based on a benchmark and are fixed for an initial period of time and reset periodically, at yearly or even monthly intervals, and can either increase or decrease depending on the market.

Fixed-Rate Mortgages

Just as it sounds, a fixed-rate mortgage offers an interest rate that will not change over the lifetime of your mortgage. From year one to the final payment, you can expect to pay the same interest rate for the entirety of the loan. 

Adjustable-Rate Mortgages (ARMs)

Unlike a fixed-rate mortgage, an ARM will include varying interest rates over the lifetime of the loan. With an ARM, the lender will offer a set interest rate for the first few years (anywhere from the first three to 10 years typically). Once that time has passed, the interest rate could increase. In turn, this would increase the borrower’s monthly payments.

While ARMs usually offer a lower initial interest rate than fixed-rate mortgages, the borrower is taking a chance on whether or not that rate will eventually rise. Though ARMs are typically not encouraged, they could be useful for those who plan on selling the home sooner rather than later, or for those who know they will be refinancing their mortgage before the rate increases.

How Is a Mortgage Payment Calculated?

Let’s assume you’re taking out a 30-year fixed-rate loan for a $200,000 house. Here’s what your mortgage payment will likely include:

  • The principal amount: This is how much you bought the property for, minus your down payment. If you bought a $200,000 home and put down $20,000 (10 percent) upfront, your principal amount for the loan would be $180,000. For a 30-year loan, we’d divide that amount into 360 monthly payments - about $500 per month.
  • The interest: If you’re obtaining a fixed-rate mortgage, your interest rate will not change over the life of the loan. If your annual interest rate is four percent, you’d need to divide that amount by 12 to determine how much you’ll be paying in interest per month. In this case, you’d be paying 0.33 percent per month. 
  • Private mortgage insurance (PMI): If you plan on making a down payment of less than 20 percent when buying a home, you will likely be required to pay a monthly PMI (private mortgage insurance) premium. In most cases, this insurance will no longer be required once you have paid up to the 20 percent in mortgage payments. According to Freddie Mac, you should be prepared to pay between $30 and $70 per month for every $100,000 borrowed.2
  • Property taxes: It’s common for your lender to establish an escrow account in which things like property taxes are collected. That’s why they will often be included in your monthly mortgage payments. When it comes time for the government to collect, your lender will pay the amount on your behalf using what you’ve already put in to escrow.
  • Homeowners insurance: Most lenders will require a borrower to obtain a homeowners insurance policy, which again will typically be lumped in to that monthly mortgage payment. 

If you’re considering purchasing a home, it’s important to do your homework first. Speak to your financial professional and begin researching mortgage types and rates before visiting your first open house. This can help eager homebuyers like yourself stay level-headed and realistic about what you’ll be able to afford.

  1. http://www.freddiemac.com/perspectives/sean_becketti/20170410_homebuyers_communities_fixed_mortgage.page
  2. https://myhome.freddiemac.com/buying/breaking-down-pmi.html

This content is developed from sources believed to be providing accurate information, and provided by Twenty Over Ten. It may not be used for the purpose of avoiding any federal tax penalties. Please consult legal or tax professionals for specific information regarding your individual situation. The opinions expressed and material provided are for general information, and should not be considered a solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security.